International Journal of Scientific Research and Management <h2><strong>International Journal of Scientific Research and Management </strong></h2> <p>IJSRM is a online&nbsp;open&nbsp;access journal that publishes articles in the field of&nbsp;Computer Science, Engineering, medical science, social science, economics, clinical research, mathematics, education,&nbsp;bio science, science, Management&nbsp;&amp; Arts . It is an international journal to encourage research&nbsp;publication to&nbsp;research&nbsp;scholars, academicians,&nbsp;professionals and students engaged in their respective field. The journal also provides an international forum to disseminate their knowledge.</p> <p>Our mission is to advance research by working to develop and maintain competence, ethics and integrity and the highest professional standards in the specialty for the benefit of the public. The Faculty seeks, through its activities, to bring about an improvement in research of the public.</p> <p><strong>Editorial Policy</strong></p> <p>Authors should prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions given in the authors' guidelines. Manuscripts which do not conform to the format and style of the Journal may be returned to the authors for revision or rejected. The Journal reserves the right to make any further formal changes and language corrections necessary in a manuscript accepted for publication so that it conforms to the formatting requirements of the Journal.</p> <p><strong>Important notice</strong></p> <p>Authors can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to;</p> <p>All manuscripts are subject to rapid peer review. Those of high quality (not previously published and not under consideration for publication in another journal) will be published without delay. First-time users are required to register themselves as an author before making submissions by signing up the author registration form at journals website</p> <p>With the online journal management system that we are using, authors will be able to track manuscripts progress through the editorial process by logging in as author in authors Dashboard.</p> <p><strong>Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <p><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong>&nbsp;The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</p> <p><strong>Very Low Publication Fees:</strong>&nbsp;Comparable journals charge a huge sum for each accepted manuscript. IJSRM only charge the fees necessary to recoup cost associated with running the journal</p> <p><strong>Areas Covered:</strong>&nbsp;Multidisciplinary</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> IJSRM Publisher en-US International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 2321-3418 How is the practicality of technopreneurship Scientific learning model design in vocational higher education? <p>This research is aimed to produce a design of learning model in the form of a practical technopreneurship scientific learning model for learning in higher education of vocational education and training. Type of the research is research and development. It was limited to, identify that technopreneurship scientific learning model is practical, and then the product was tested with users; lecturers and students. The questionnaire for assessing the practicality consisted of level of practicality sheet for the users. This instrument was made by using linkert measuring scale. The practicality sheet covered lecturer and students perception towards technopreneurship scientific learning model. It can be practical if it meets the criteria of aspect which is tested to the lecturer to identify attractiveness aspect, aspects of the development process, aspect of user practicality, aspect of functionality and usability, and the aspect of reliability. The result of the research shows that technopreneurship scientific learning model is practical from the lecturer’s view. Besides, from the students’ view, by identifying the students’ interest, the process of its use, improving students` activeness in learning process, the product is also practical. These research findings prove that technopreneurship scientific learning model is practical and be able to be used in higher education, especially in practice courses which expect the students to produce a good product in the form of prototype, blueprint, and concept. This technopreneurship scientific learning model can be developed and used in different courses based on the learning needs.</p> Hendra Hidayat Susi Herawati Khairul . Boy Yendra Tamin Eril Syahmaidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 6 09 2018-631-636 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.el01 When Citizens Are Minority: Toward Establishing A Comprehensive Emirati SME Support System <p>This paper endeavours to contribute to developing a comprehensive framework of institutional support system in a situation where citizens and citizen-owned SMEs form a minority in their own country. This is significant because it is not confined only to the case study of this Paper, (United Arab Emirates), but is prevalent in all countries of Gulf Cooperation Council.</p> <p>Examining the current situation of Emirati-owned SME reveals many challenges and opportunities.&nbsp; After developing an empirical framework for SME support and providing analysis of the Emirati SME scene, the paper uses the benchmarking approach (and Singapore has been selected for this purpose), and refers to other relevant literature, to discuss and develop constituents of the proposed support system. It concludes that Emirati SME support system may not be sustainable if not linked to a broader strategy for the development of the country’s entire SME sector. Such a strategy, which the paper has not extended into, remains to be an area for future research.</p> Abbas Abdelkarim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-05 2018-09-05 6 09 2018-650-666 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.em01 Some Remarks on the Estimation of Informal Economy in the Republic of Macedonia <p><em>In this paper we discuss some findings on the estimation of the informal economy in a particular economical system, the Republic of Macedonia. We observed that undeviating application of standard models could produce different results and therefore some preliminary precaution has been taken. Therefore, by performing step by step analysis we conclude in acceptable values and in the evidencing of dominant factors that simulate informal economy. The work reveals the importance of model’s assumption fulfilling in the case of economic systems where observables are non-stationary and the economy itself is typically in dynamical evolution. As result of such improvement of the procedure we obtained that the country’s informal economy is going slight down starting from a local peak value touched in 2010-2011. By now it is stabilized around the values 33%-35% of GDP. We obtained herein that the majority of economic and political measures undertaken recently in the framework of informality reduction have worked in the aimed direction. From the factors point of view we obtained that contribution of some variables in the informal economy growth in the period analyzed</em></p> Dashmir Asani Dode Prenga Elmira Kushta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-05 2018-09-05 6 09 2018-667-675 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.em02 The Effect of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Quality of Work Life (QWL) on The Employee Work Performance with Motivation As An Intervening Variables at Industrial affairs Of South Sumatera Province <p>Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a new concept in terms of performance analysis that is not regulated by the organization, and a formal reward system is not taken into account, but this behavior will encourage the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall organizational function. High employee performance will also be created when Quality of Work Life (QWL) provides comfort and prosperity in the work environment, because it is consideredbe able to increase the role and contribution of employees in an organization. High work motivation will also have an impact on the better performance given by employees to achieve the goals of the institution. The purpose of this research are to find out whether or not : OCB affects work motivation, QWL affects work motivation, OCB affects employee performance, QWL affects employee performance, Work motivation affects employee performance, The effect of work motivation as a mediation of OCB to employee performance, The effect of work motivation as a mediation of the QWL to work performance.</p> Agustina Hanafi Bambang Bemby Soebyakto Meldha Afriyanti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-11 2018-09-11 6 09 2018-676-685 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.em03 Impact of Informal Groups on Organisational Performance <p><em>The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of informal groups on organizational performance. Informal groups are a very powerful social network which are constructed in response to and through actions of their members, informal groupings when viewed on the degree of their being informal, creates a managerial burden informally for managers who require additional competences to manage their activities. Informal groups exist to achieve group interest which may not necessarily be in tandem with the overall goals of the organization. The aim of this study is to identify why employees engage in informal groups. A survey research design was adopted and copies of questionnaire were administered on 319 employees of the selected construction companies, using disproportionate stratified sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation. The questionnaire was validated using content validity. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by determining the correlation coefficient of the data collected at two different periods. The study discovered informal groups has a significant effect on employee performance, there is a significant relationship between informal groups and their characteristics, there is a significant relationship between informal groups and self-confidence in Nigerian construction firms and Informal groups has significant influence on organizational performance in Nigeria</em></p> Dr. Cross Ogohi Daniel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-16 2018-09-16 6 09 2018-686-694 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.em04 Design and laying out of roads and paths in Greece for better management and development of the forest area <p><em>The forest covers everyday many human needs (e.g. recreation, walking, hiking, mountaineering, training, sports, etc.). These activities are achieved through the use of paths, which are now well developed and have taken the form of a network. During the past they constituted shaped ways by pedestrians and animals in order to join places that have for man any particular interest.</em></p> <p><em>Today, with technology development, in their mapping and surveying was given to them great importance, because they serve as mentioned above many activities and at the same time constitute an ecological form of road, friendlier to the environment than other classic routes.</em></p> <p><em>In consequence, depending on the regions we want to approach, potential users, the length, the degree of difficulty and their shape, we distinguish the paths in various categories (paths of big corridors, mountaineering paths hiking trails, peripatetic paths, educational paths and in combinations of paths). Greece except from the national trails contains also parts of two international paths (E4, E6).</em></p> <p><em>The design and laying out of paths is judged essential because it constitutes important tool of sustainable management. In order to laying out of the paths and the production of maps can be used several devices and instruments such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the electronic compass - finder (TruePulse 360° B).</em></p> <p><em>These devices provide us with enough information about the terrain and they contribute to the creation of topographical activities in order to develop the area as it appears in this paper. The study area is a typical semi mountainous area in the Macedonia region.</em></p> <p><em>The results of the measurements are presented in GIS, where the final shape of the path is appeared, and the points of measurement are given in tables. The mapping can be extended and the results of the surveying can be included in a printed or electronic map data in order to be used by stakeholders.</em></p> Sarantis-Angelos Liampas VASILEIOS DROSOS, professor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 6 09 2018-75-79 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.fe01 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and International Terrorism: Boko Haram and Al Shabaab in Perspective <p><em>This study examined the relationship between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and international terrorism with regards to the activities of terrorist groups. This was premised on the fact that ICT has created a network with a truly global reach for advancement of terrorist activities. The internet technology makes it easy for an individual to communicate with relative ease and anonymity, quickly and effectively across borders to an almost limitless audience. This factor made ICT and their innovative tendencies of the social media like Whatsapp, Facebook, Instagram, Youtube, Twitter etc to serve as veritable tool and motivation for terrorist groups and their activities. Historical and descriptive methods were employed in this study hence data were drawn from relevant primary and secondary sources which included published and unpublished materials. The findings of the study revealed that increased availability of ICT and other innovative tendencies has made it easier for terrorist organizations to communicate, recruit, radicalize as well as mobilize individuals to plan and coordinate terrorist attacks. Based on the above findings, it was recommended among others that understanding terrorist recruitment through the social media was vital to counter-terrorism. Hence, understanding how and why an individual is radicalize and recruited into a terrorist organization is therefore an important part of addressing the fight against terrorism. Accordingly, there should be investment in scientific research and industrial development that are more resistant for terrorist use.</em></p> Dr. Uwak U. Eyo, Egemuka C. Collins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 6 09 2018-248-263 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i8.ps01 Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Yield and Yield Components as Affected by Mulching at Teda, Centeral Gondar, Ethiopia <p>Lettuce (<em>Lactuca sativa </em>L.<em>) </em>is one of the most popular salad crops and occupies the largest production area among salad crops in the world. However, production of lettuce can be limited due to lack of improved production techniques. Farmers in northwestern Ethiopia didn’t apply mulching for lettuce. A field study was conducted at Teda in 2018 to evaluate the effect of different mulching materials on yield and yield component of lettuce (<em>Lactuca sativa </em><em>L</em>.) under irrigation. Five mulching materials used as a treatment viz: white plastic, black plastic, teff straw, chickpea straw and control (without mulch). The treatments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Application of mulching increased leaf width, leaf number, plant height, biological yield, root volume, dry matter and plant height. The highest and lowest yield was recorded for black plastic mulch and no mulch, respectively. The study revealed that the black plastic is the best mulching material among the organic and inorganic once for the production of lettuce in the study area.</p> Tiru Tesfa Derajew Asres Hulushum Woreta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-05 2018-09-05 6 09 2018-190-194 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.ah01 Linguistic reflections of children’s transformation from Circadian to Newtonian time and the direction of time <p>Both linguistically and conceptually, the acquisition of time by children is pretty late when the process is compared with the acquisition and usage of linguistic elements denoting objects, states, actions and situations. This study investigated how children transform their Circadian time to Bergsonian time and how they encode Newtonian time linguistically.</p> <p>The study was carried out by the researcher’s longitudinal observation of his three daughters from the ages 2 to 10. &nbsp;In order to verify the idiosyncratic temporal production of the three children, cross-sectional data were also collected using a day organization test.</p> <p>The results show that, (a) children between the ages of 3 and 4 live more in deictic time in that they refer to momentarily completed events such as a parent’s or sibling’s coming home or doing something which is worth mentioning from point of view of the child (“Baba geldi” ‘Daddy is home.’ or “düştü” ‘(it) fell’). (b) Children live in the Circadian time until the ages of 8-11 in that they conceive of and state time with reference to zeitgebers such as sleep-wake or day-night cycles. They also live simultaneously in Bergsonian time in that they refer to temporal units (e.g. days) with reference to the closest temporal unit (e.g. Dünden sonra” ‘The day dfter yesterday’ to mean the day before yesterday and “Yarından sonra” ‘The day after tomorrow’. (d) They begin to adopt Newtonian time with reference to certain successive events such as “Two days earlier” and then refine their conceptualization of Newtonian time by referring to hours (but not minutes). &nbsp;(e) Children are pretty ahead of Newtonian time in the construction of complex temporal relations linguistically.</p> Mehmet OZCAN ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 6 09 2018-247-256 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.sh01 Research for the Investigation of Consumer Attitudes towards Online Shopping in Niğde Province <p>This research study is conducted to determine consumers’ reasons for not shopping online, to explicate their attitudes towards online purchasing behaviors, and to examine whether or not their attitudes towards online purchasing behavior differ in accordance with the descriptive characteristics of the consumers. The survey questionnaires, prepared in compliance with the aim, are conducted on 502 Niğde residents chosen by convenience sampling method. The data obtained from the survey questionnaires are analyzed via SPSS 22.0 computer software. According to the results of the study; the reasons that cause online shopping include price reduction, the economics of time and finding the best product, while the reasons of avoiding online shopping include refraining from giving out identity document and credit card information, and demanding physical product trial. Participants are determined to be such individuals within a certain age range (26-35 years) who have more positive attitudes towards online shopping rather than negative attitudes, have higher education and income levels. In the research study, it is also detected that gender, the location at which the Internet is connected, and the duration of time spent on the Internet are independent of attitudes towards online shopping.</p> Hatice Elanur Kaplan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-05 2018-09-05 6 09 2018-257-260 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.sh02 An investigation into Designing Smart city in Accordance with Designing for Children toward Child-Friendly Smart Cities <p>The process of urban planning should be multi-dimensional and comprehensive meaning that it takes into consideration all groups of people especially less able ones. Children are one of these groups who should be taken into consideration more in urban planning and urban design. Planning to make cities smart is one of the new approaches in urban design. However, children are often largely ignored in these plans. The researchers of the present study tried to examine the position of children in smart city-related planning. To this end, the concepts of child-friendly cities are dealt with and studied so that its common indexes with the smart city would be extracted hoping that the position of children in smart cities would be considered more. The research method employed in the study is library-based and analytic-descriptive.</p> Mazdak Irani Amir Rastegar Behzad Shojaedingivi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-11 2018-09-11 6 09 2018-261-275 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.sh03 A Design and Fabrication of Fish Feed Pelleting Machine. <p><strong>Abstract.</strong></p> <p>Irrespective of the increasing effort of fish farmers to grow fish continuously and feed the nation with diet full of fish,, survey has pointed fish feed as one of the outstanding factors limiting the progress of the farmers as the high cost of the feeds scares poor farmer from active farming. This paper present to you a well-designed and locally fabricated electrically powered fish feed pelleting machine, driven by three electric gear motors of 3hp, 1.8hp and 0.7hp that drive the screw conveyor at the barrel, the hopper conveyor and the extrusion cutter respectively. The components of the machine were locally sourced and locally fabricated. The hopper, the screw conveyors, the barrel and the cutter are made of stainless steel to reduce contamination due to rust. The machine measures 183mm length, 38mm width and 115mm high. It is calculated to have pelleting efficiency of 0.97% and is capable of producing 0.0539kg of feed per second.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>feed, pelleting, fish and machine</p> Chika christian Ogbu Bernard Okpe Veronica Ifeoma Muo Vincent Okoloekwe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-16 2018-09-16 6 09 2018-78-84 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i9.ec01